The soil was an organic mix a la Lasagna Gardening soil, but it had also been used for 2 seasons.. I just cut the end that went into the soil at an angle. Then buried the end over the first two “nubs” from the previous year’s growth. It took me less than 15 minutes to do about a dozen sticks. There are some very good videos from Guerney’s seeds on the care, and pruning of grapes.